They have developed space satellites that passively capture and decode the faint energy signals given off by changes in water vapor, temperatures, rain and wind that determine future weather patterns. On the other side are wireless communication companies, smartphone manufacturers and the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), which regulates the use of the radio frequency spectrum. The FCC has been supporting 5G since 2016 when its former chairman, Tom Wheeler, initiated a policy he called “Spectrum Frontiers” to push the growth of 5G. The report, released last month, said demand for spectrum space is “growing exponentially,” with the potential for between 25 billion to 50 billion devices competing for space by 2025. Accurate weather data, he added, is necessary for agriculture, aviation, water management, monitoring wildfires and managing energy production, as well as for U.S. defense agencies.