Charles Darwin and many others knew about the wing loss habit of island insects and debated famed botanist Joseph Hooker as to why. Ecological Monographs 60:389-421), found that flightlessness on islands is comparable to that of the mainland, and believed Darwin got it wrong. Common letters above boxes indicate no significant difference between groups, red boxes indicate assemblages that evolved outside the Southern Ocean region. Windy conditions make insect flight more difficult and energetically costly. Thus, insects stop investing in flight and its expensive underlying machinery (wings, wing muscles) and redirect the resources to reproduction.