Nearly 70 years ago, results of a Swedish experiment, now called the Vipeholm studies, correlated frequent candy consumption and tooth decay. Then the debate began in earnest over whether the cause was sugar or vitamin deficiency. When the Swedish government took action, in the late 1950s, over 80 percent of toddlers had cavities at age 3. (1)The debate about whether carbohydrates, specifically sugar in candy, or vitamin deficiencies cause cavities tilted heavily to candy. They ingest more sugar each year than just about anyone, and even today 25 percent of that is candy.