China, the world’s largest emitter of greenhouse gases, has launched its first national emissions-trading scheme. “In the future, I think it may play a formidable role in curbing carbon emissions,” he says. The issue for China is that its economy is expected to grow by 4–5% per year, which means a significant increase in power consumption, and therefore emissions, Qin says. Another challenge for China will be to ensure the integrity of reporting and monitoring of emissions, says Qin. In 2019, China was responsible for 27% of global carbon emissions—more than 10 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide.