When adults claim to have suddenly recalled painful events from their childhood, are those memories likely to be accurate? But clinicians who also do research have been publishing peer-reviewed studies of dissociative amnesia in leading journals for decades. “We think that these brain studies can help reduce the stigma associated with our work,” Kaufman says. “These brain studies provide biological evidence just for the claims of patients who report memory loss due to dissociation,” he says. While a brain-based test that could diagnose dissociative symptoms is not likely anytime soon, research on neurobiological explanations show the controversy over forgetting and remembering traumatic memories is far from settled.