I have now stopped using Siri, Apple's voice-based virtual assistant, because of it. One recent study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, showed that speech-recognition programs are biased against Black speakers. This effectively censors voices that are not part of the “standard” languages or accents used to create these technologies. Humans, presumably including those who create these technologies, have accent and language biases. Koenecke suggests that automated speech-recognition companies use the PNAS study as a preliminary benchmark and keep using it to assess their systems over time.