Such systems are an example of a circular production economy, rather than a linear system that begins with a natural resource and ends in a landfill. So you don’t have to believe that we have or will reach “peak” whatever in order to see the advantages of designing a circular production economy. Circular production does happen on its own, because industry does not like waste either. If a waste stream has a value, because there is the technology to do something with it, then a circular stream develops naturally. Therefore, one of the two main methods of promoting a sustainable circular model of production is prioritizing research that makes recyling, upcylcing, and circular production scalable and cost-effective.