Figuring out how to affordably apply this “structural color” concept to a wide range of products has been tricky. Structural color, however, comes from microscopic structures whose varying shapes reflect or refract light in different ways. These formations refract specific light wavelengths to produce a brilliant blue. Scientists are still studying the finer details of the ways structural color manifests in nature. But those films can only be applied to certain surfaces, making the new structural color technology potentially more versatile.