She defines cheating as sharing test questions and answers, or collaborating during a test or assignment without the instructor's permission. According to the Educational Testing Service/Ad Council Campaign to Discourage Academic Cheating, about 20 percent of college students \"admitted to cheating in high school\" in the 1940s. But a 2008 report by the Josephson Institute of Ethics, a nonprofit character-education organization, 59 percent of high school students admitted cheating on an exam, and 34 percent admitted to doing it more than twice. What has changed is how students are cheating rather than the fact that they are cheating. There appears to be a total disconnect between what students believe about cheating and what they do in practice.