India’s economy suffered significantly after the 2020 lockdown, so officials were under tremendous political pressure to avoid similar restrictions when cases started rising again in April. Manoj Jain, an adjunct professor at Emory’s Rollins School of Public Health, agrees the lockdown worked well because it relied on strict police enforcement. This time, rather than a nationally coordinated lockdown, India’s states were left to their own devices. Uttar Pradesh, India’s most populous state, also imposed only half-hearted restrictions during the second wave. “The vaccine rollout in India has been a notable effort, given India’s poor public health infrastructure,” Subramanian says.