Allotropy: Why Winter Spells Trouble for the Tin Man
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Tin is a commonplace metal that’s used industrially in a thousand different ways. From the solder that holds your computer’s motherboard together to the PVC plumbing under your sink, tin compounds are everywhere. This phenomenon, known as “tin pest”, is certainly not due a biological organism, but is widely mistaken for an oxidation reaction. Instead, tin pest happens thanks to something called allotropy—the metal’s atomic lattice can take on multiple different shapes, depending on the temperature it’s kept at. At room temperature, tin exists in its “beta” form.

Scientists Search for Rudolph's Red Nose, and other great stories.
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Green light (530nm) is readily absorbed by both oxygenated and deoxygenated blood but bounces (scatters) off of the surrounding tissue. Shining green light inside the nose of reindeer and humans, the researchers were able to take detailed videos of the nasal circulatory system, tracking the rate of blood flow through individual blood vessels.The researchers wrote their own image analysis software that can determine the density of blood vessels and track velocity of red blood cells through the dense network of blood vessels.Despite the tongue-in-cheek premise of this study, researchers have not previously used this imaging technique to study nasal circulation. The team found that humans and reindeer noses both feature hairpin-shaped blood vessels and similar capillary networks. Most pertinent to their aim, they found that the density of blood vessels in reindeer noses is 25% greater than the density in human noses, leading to a rosy tint. \"These factors explain why the nose of Rudolph, the lead flying reindeer employed by Santa Claus to pull his sleigh, is red and well adapted to carrying out his duties in extreme temperatures,\" the authors conclude in their paper.The annual BMJ holiday issue is a great read-- check out other great findings from the holiday issues including: whether 27 is actually the dangerous age for musicians, how fast you have to walk to beat Grim Reaper , and the dreamed-of expose on tooth fairy malpractice.

The Science of Spiritual Narcissism
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Perhaps on the whole, spiritual practices really do help quiet the ego, and spiritual narcissism isn’t that widespread. SELF-CENTRALITY AND SPIRITUALITYIn the past few years, a number of high-quality studies have started to unearth the existence of spiritual narcissism and self-enhancement among spiritual practices that purport to quiet the ego. SPIRITUAL SUPERIORITY AND SPIRITUAL PRACTICESIn a more recent set of studies, Roos Vonk and Anouk Visser conducted an exploration of “spiritual superiority.” They interviewed several psychologists, spiritual trainers and lay people, and asked them to describe people who use spirituality as a self-enhancement tool. Interestingly, their scale of spiritual superiority was more strongly correlated with communal narcissism than self-esteem, providing evidence for the notion of “spiritual narcissism.” Indeed, it’s important to distinguish between healthy self-esteem and narcissism. Increases in healthy self-esteem as a result of spiritual practices may be a good thing, and are not necessarily indicative of spiritual narcissism, which is why it’s good that the researchers were able to tie their measure of spiritual superiority to a specific form of narcissism: communal narcissism.

Kidney Dialysis Is a Booming Business—Is It Also a Rigged One?
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What's more, both are widely known to donate hundreds of millions of dollars to the American Kidney Fund, covering the vast majority of the nonprofit’s budget. The social worker paused, then asked if she’d heard about the American Kidney Fund. They found fewer kidney transplants, higher rates of hospitalization, and lower rates of overall survival among dialysis patients at for-profit clinics. Records from the California Secretary of State showed that dialysis corporations forked over upwards of $110 million via the California Dialysis Council in 2018. Unlike Karabasz, who blames AB 290 and those behind it for the uncertainty of her position, Carroll says some responsibility falls on the American Kidney Fund.

For Black and Brown Kidney Patients, There Are Higher Hurdles to Care
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The international actuarial and consulting firm Milliman estimates that the average billable cost for a kidney transplant in 2020 is $442,500. Both Black and Hispanic patients were less likely to receive this care compared to White patients. Indeed, according to an analysis of data from 1990 to 2009, Black patients waited an average of 2.5 months longer than White patients for a kidney transplant. Despite such changes in organ donation, Black patients on dialysis are still far less likely than White patients to receive a living donor kidney. Black patients, then, tend to reach out to fellow Black family and friends.

Can Your Car Have Too Many Bumper Stickers?
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In the U.S., each state has different regulations governing the use of stickers on car windows. AdvertisementAdvertisementAccording to psychologist William Szlemko and a team of other researchers at Colorado State University, there's definitely such a thing as too many bumper stickers. That's because a study they conducted in 2008 found that the quantity of stickers on a car was a predictor of road rage. Bumper stickers represent a mainstream, and sometimes humorous, way for people to express themselves on every subject under the sun. But bumper stickers featuring profanity, a protected form of speech, occasionally lead to a citation or arrest.

The Mastodon Graveyard That Stole Thomas Jefferson's Heart
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\" \" Big Bone Lick National Park Mark ManciniFor the Sage of Monticello, science was a patriotic pursuit. In lieu of live specimens, Lewis sent the president a couple of new mastodon fossils from Big Bone Lick. In 1960, the Big Bone Lick fossil site was incorporated into a new state park. At the entrance, visitors are greeted by a sign that reads \"Big Bone Lick Historic Site: Birthplace of American Vertebrate Paleontology.\" Now That's Interesting The American mastodon was named Michigan's official state fossil in 2002 because its remains are common in the Lower Peninsula.

How to Fill Out a Money Order
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You also must fill out a money order correctly, otherwise it will have to be canceled and refunded, and then repurchased. AdvertisementAdvertisementBefore you go to buy a money order, make sure you know what types of payment are accepted. The amount will be printed when the money order is prepared by the issuer, but you'll fill in everything else. Fill in the recipient's address and your address, if required, depending on the type of money order. Sign the money order in a \"Signature\" or \"Purchaser\" field, if one is required.

Can Shocking Images Persuade Doubters of COVID’s Dangers?
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Images are visceral reminders of the pandemic’s dangers, revealing unsettling events behind closed doors, showing us suffering’s human face. Is there evidence showing that shocking images reliably persuade? In our study, we found that participants also believed shocking images would deliver a persuasive punch, moving people’s attitudes about the risks of the coronavirus. Viewing disturbing images, we use the sadness or outrage we ourselves feel as a guide to understand how others will feel. If you entered our study doubting the threat, the images didn’t shock you and, accordingly, didn’t move your thinking.

Ancient Dogs Had Complex Genetic Histories
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He and his colleagues studied the genomes of 27 ancient dog bones dug up around the world. Bergström: “To a large degree the history of dogs seems to have been shaped by human history, so likely reflecting how when humans moved they would have brought their dogs with them.”Ancient humans clearly found dogs to be very useful. [Anders Bergström et al, Origins and genetic legacy of prehistoric dogs]One odd finding: about 11,000 years ago it looks like dogs spread more widely than humans did. So how could the dog spread so quickly and widely? The number of copies of a starch-digesting gene in both humans and dogs increased in the generations following the invention of agriculture.

Rainbow Chameleons Display True Colors When Courting
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\" \" A male of the new chameleon species Calumma uetzi flaunts his display colors. The visually striking highlight of the three new lizards is undoubtedly the Calumma uetzi, a chameleon with rainbow-colored stripes along its back and tail. Researchers have located only about a dozen of the third little chameleon, Calumma juliae. Although Madagascar is the fifth-largest island on Earth, rampant deforestation and habitat loss mean all three of these new chameleon species are threatened by extinction. In the meantime, researchers keep racing to document more fauna like these little lizards before they are lost forever.

Multiverses and the Inverse Gambler's Fallacy
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It is, they claim, the inverse gambler’s fallacy. We evolved in this universe because it is compatible with the evolution of complex life with sufficient stability to develop sentience and ask questions about things like the inverse gambler’s fallacy. In trying to avoid the inverse gambler’s fallacy they are, I think, committing the lottery fallacy. To extend this to Goff’s Joker fallacy – imagine you wake up in a room with four other people. We don’t need to explain why our universe won, only that some universe would win (otherwise that’s the lottery fallacy).

Less 'Feminine' Looking? Your Sexual Harassment Claims May Be Seen As Less Credible
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Stereotypically feminine hobbies include shopping, yoga or watching romantic movies, rather than stereotypically masculine hobbies such as fishing, contact sports or watching violent action movies.To test how that concept of a typical woman impacted participants' view of sexual harassment, five of the experiments had participants read scenarios in which women either did or did not experience sexual harassment. Participants then assessed the extent to which these women fit with the idealized image of women, either by drawing what they thought the woman might look like or selecting from a series of photos. Across all the experiments, participants perceived the targets of sexual harassment as more stereotypical than those who did not experience harassment.In the next four experiments, participants were shown ambiguous sexual harassment scenarios, such as a boss inquiring about a woman's dating life. These scenarios were paired with descriptions or photos of women who were either stereotypical or not. The participants then rated the likelihood that the incident constituted sexual harassment.

Best Identity Theft Protection 2021 – HowStuffWorks Reviews Articles Search
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From stolen credit cards and other financial information to theft of your Social Security number and legal information, identity theft can happen in many ways. Identity theft protection services. In addition to these basic services, identity theft protection can be purchased in two forms. Identity Theft Monitoring ServicesIdentity theft monitoring services are one of the most popular options. Protect Yourself With Identity Theft Protection Options TodayIf you’re worried about the dangerous threat of identity theft, you aren’t alone.

Premature Freak-Outs about Techno-Enhancement
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I’m venting now because I’ve discovered a phrase that elegantly captures my peeve: wishful worries. How can we protect privacy in an age of tech-enabled telepathy?”We expect boosters of techno-enhancement to minimize technical obstacles. Brain chips could, in principle, give us enormous power over our brains, hence minds, hence behavior. He and others also warned that tyrants might use brain chips to monitor and control our thoughts. In 2003 the U.S. Council on Bioethics, a group convened by President George Bush, brooded over brain chips’ possible effects on STEM education.

Best Payroll Software 2021 – HowStuffWorks Reviews Articles Search
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Payroll Service or Payroll Software – What is the Real Difference? This is why most of the businesses reach for the help of the payroll services from specialized agencies, while the other reach for the payroll software as the right solution for their payrolls. A good accountant or good payroll software, it is up to you to decide what is more reliable. Payroll software comes with a fee that is not really comparable to the payroll service. When you opt for payroll software, then things get much easier and better.

Psychedelics as Antidepressants
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Outside of this group however, many people don’t think of these compounds as antidepressants to be distributed by white-coat-wearing psychiatrists. This is a start at improving the public perception of psychedelic use, which can ultimately encourage more to seek psychedelic therapy in psychiatric practice. But prior to this, the National Institutes of Health funded more than 130 studies to explore the benefits of psychedelic therapy. However, using alcohol and using tobacco products are both widely perceived as socially acceptable. Other documented cases include instances of people using psychedelics of questionable purity or in unknown doses, and almost always in conjunction with other drugs.

Ridiculous History: How MLK Influenced the Direction of 'Star Trek'
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\" \" Nichelle Nichols stars as Lt. Uhura in the \"Star Trek\" episode \"Spock's Brain.\" After the first season of \"Star Trek,\" she was approached with the opportunity to return to the stage and decided to take it. Nichols' continued presence on the show cemented Lieutenant Uhura as a cultural icon in science fiction and American pop culture. \" Nichelle Nichols and William Shatner lock lips on the \"Star Trek\" episode \"Plato's Stepchildren,\" originally aired Nov. 22, 1968. The play aired in 1962, years before the fateful \"Star Trek\" scene.

Science News Briefs from Around the World
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I’m Scientific American assistant news editor Sarah Lewin Frasier. And here’s a short piece from the January 2021 issue of the magazine, in the section called Advances: Dispatches From The Frontiers Of Science, Technology And Medicine. The article is titled Quick Hits, and it’s a rundown of some non-coronavirus stories from around the globe. Considered part of the Great Barrier Reef, it is the first detached reef structure discovered there in 120 years. That was “Quick Hits.” I’m Sarah Lewin Frasier.

How Often Should You Wash Your Bra?
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Although bras don't necessarily fall in the \"wash after every use\" category, like undies and socks, they do require more maintenance than they might be currently getting. Note, however, this does not mean a bra should be washed every three days. Wouldn't it be easier to just wear one for three days straight, then switch to the next bra? \"Bra maintenance is important because you need a bra in good condition to help keep your breasts perky,\" says breast health author Christine Egan in an email interview. But, however you wash, never put your bra in the dryer, say the experts.

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